Monday, 2 July 2012


If you love GOLD like you do then you will find this article very interesting. Gold is beauty personified, mysterious and a woman's true best friend. Its a great investment , afterall it does not tarnish and it's value appreciates with time. Many who know me have asked me the meaning of phrase "GOLDWATER " ...and today I will reveal it. The phrase and interpretation came to me while I was meditating. I will explain using a simple maths equation


This article is a compendium of different articles on this precious metal called Gold.Please read and be entertained and informed.
Gold  is a dense, soft, shiny, malleable and ductile metal ,it is a chemical element with the symbol Au and atomic number 79. While the name gold comes from an Old English word meaning yellow, the symbol comes from the Latin aurum, which means “shining dawn.”
Pure gold has a bright yellow color and luster traditionally considered attractive, which it maintains without oxidizing in air or water. Chemically, gold is a transition metal and a group 11 element. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements that remains solid under standard temperature and pressure.
Gold resists attacks by individual acids, but it can be dissolved by the aqua regia (nitro-hydrochloric acid), so named because it dissolves gold. Gold also dissolves in alkaline solutions of cyanide, which have been used in mining. Gold dissolves in mercury, forming amalgam alloys. Gold is insoluble in nitric acid, which dissolves silver and base metals, a property that has long been used to confirm the presence of gold in items, giving rise to the term the acid test.
Gold has been a valuable and highly sought-after precious metal for coinage, jewelry, and other arts since long before the beginning of recorded history. Gold standards have been the most common basis for monetary policies throughout human history
Known from ancient times — along with mercury, sulfur, copper, silver, lead, and tin — gold was used as early as 6000 B.C.
Gold is found in both lode deposits and placer deposits, and is naturally uncombined. While the largest deposit is to be found in South Africa, deposits of note are also located in Australia, the former Soviet Union, and a number of western states of the United States, including Arizona in the Southwest; California, Montana, and Washington in the Pacific Northwest, and South Dakota in the Midwest.


ANCIENT GOLD : Archaeological digs suggest the use of Gold began in the Middle East where the first known civilizations began. The oldest pieces of gold jewelry, Egyptian jewelry, were found in the tomb of Queen Zer and of Queen Pu-abi of Ur in Sumeria and are the oldest examples found of any kind of jewelry in a find from the third millennium BC. Over the centuries, most of the Egyptian tombs were raided, but the tomb of Tutankhamen was discovered undisturbed by modern archaeologists. Inside, the largest collection of gold and jewelry in the world was found and included a gold coffin whose quality showed the advanced state of Egyptian craftsmanship and goldworking (second millennium BC).


Ancient Egyptian gold slippers

EYE OF HORUS earrings

The Persian Empire, in what is now Iran, made frequent use of Gold in artwork as part of the religion of Zoroastrianism. Persian goldwork is most famous for its animal art, which was modified after the Arabs conquered the area in the 7th century AD.

When Rome began to flourish, the city attracted talented Gold artisans who created gold jewelry of wide variety. The use of gold in Rome later expanded into household items and furniture in the homes of the higher classes. By the third century AD, the citizens of Rome wore necklaces that contained coins with the image of the emperor. As Christianity spread through the European continent, Europeans ceased burying their dead with their jewelry. As a result, few gold items survive from the Middle Ages, except those of royalty and from church hoards



Gold deposits are found in western Nigeria, most prominently near Maru, Anka, Malele, Tsohon Birnin Gwari-Kwaga, Gurmana, Bin Yauri, Okolom-Dogondaji, and Iperindo in Kwara State.
Gold production began in 1913 and peaked in the 1930s. During the Second World War, production declined. Mines were abandoned by colonial companies, and production never recovered.


The Nigerian Mining Corporation (NMC) was formed in the early 1980s to explore for gold. Lack of funds, and the lure of easier profits from oil production led to its failure. There is no large scale gold mining operation in Nigeria today, though there is small-scale mining carried out by artists. Most gold mining in Nigeria is done illegally and has serious dire consequences. Ilegal gold mining has left at least 2,000 children with lead poisoning in several northern Nigerian villages, where 400 children have already died from lead contamination.


The 2,000 children under five have shown signs of lead levels in the blood far exceeding international standards due to exposure to lead-rich gold ore, with some areas yet to be cleaned up despite repeated warnings. Gold can be found in the following states: Niger, Osun, Kebbi, Kaduna, Kogi,
Kwara, Zamfara, Katsina, Kano and the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. Zamfara loses over N62 billion annually to illegal mining in the two local government areas of Anka and Bukkuyum, says the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control.

Chris Aire, a Nigerian, aka as ICE MAN among Hollywood circles unveiled a limited-edition collection of Nigerian gold and gemstone jewelry at an exclusive event in collaboration with Nigeria's Ministry of Mines and Steel in honor of Hollywood glamour of the 1930s and '40s and Nigeria.

The event had a silent auction offering limited-edition Chris Aire pieces,  proceeds from the auction were used to benefit the United States Association for UNHCR, a nonprofit that supports the United Nations Refugee Agency's humanitarian work to protect and assist refugees around the world.

In a Press Release, Chris Aire said “The purpose of my partnership with the Nigeria Ministry of Mines and Steel is to bring attention to the vast and largely untapped gold and gemstone resources in Nigeria,” He said this to explain why he chose Nigerian diamonds and his collaboration efforts with the Nigerian government. He also said “I hope (it) will stimulate investments and create jobs to provide additional revenue sources for the country” . He added “All of the materials in my collection were mined adhering to the highest standard of world labor laws. So People can enjoy wearing Chris Aire's Nigerian Gold Jewellery collection without feeling guilty because the Gold was mined Professionally. One can only imagine the vast business opportunities , jobs and foreign exchange if  Solid mineral exploration is taken seriously and less emphasis placed on crude oil (black gold)

GHANA GOLD : Before March 1957 Ghana was called the Gold Coast. The Portuguese who came to Ghana in the 15th Century found so much gold between the rivers Ankobra and the Volta that they named the place Mina - meaning Mine. The Gold Coast was later adopted to by the English colonisers..Ghana gold contributes over 90% of the total mineral exports. Thus, the main focus of Ghana's mining and minerals development industry remains focused on gold. Ghana is Africa's 2nd largest gold producer, producing 80.5 t in 2008. Ghana is also a major producer of bauxite, manganese and diamonds. The country has 23 large-scale mining companies producing gold, diamonds, bauxite and manganese, and, there are also over 300 registered small scale mining groups and 90 mine support service companies
The Ashanti's with a very rich culture in Ghana celebrate one of the most colorful festivals being the Akwasidae festival. The celebration marks a period of stock taking and fervent assessment of events in the life of the Ashanti's.
It serves as a period to propitiate the ancestors through whom the Ashanti Unity gains its grounds. It boasts a great display of  "ALL GOLD EVERYTHING "!



Gold is the most popular precious metal used as an investment. Investors generally buy gold as a hedge or harbor against economic, political, or social fiat currency crises (including investment market declines, burgeoning national debt, currency failure, inflation, war and social unrest).Of all the precious metals, Gold has been used throughout history as money and has been a relative standard for currency equivalents specific to economic regions or countries, until recent times. Many European countries implemented gold standards in the latter part of the 19th century until these were temporarily suspended in the financial crises involving World War .It is posssible to sell gold more than the price one purchased because gold value appreciates daily



Gold jewelry never goes out of style, and for good reason, because gold is as wearer-friendly as it is beautiful. Pure gold doesn't react with other elements to create tarnish, the residue that accumulates on some metals before transferring to your skin as a stain. Sometimes people have allergy or staining problems with metals that are combined with gold, but the gold itself is rarely a problem.
Gold can be worked into nearly any shape, including tiny strands that do not break easily. One ounce of gold can even be hammered into an ultra thin sheet that's ten feet square. Gold can be manipulated nearly any way the artisan desires.Gold can be worked into nearly any shape, including tiny strands that do not break easily. One ounce of gold can even be hammered into an ultra thin sheet that's ten feet square. Gold can be manipulated nearly any way the artisan desires. 
 24K gold is pure gold 
18K gold contains 18 parts gold and 6 parts of one or more additional metals, making it 75% gold.
14K gold contains 14 parts gold and 10 parts of one or more additional metals, making it 58.3% gold.
12K gold contains 12 parts gold and 12 parts of one or more additional metals, making it 50% gold.
10K gold contains 10 parts gold and 14 parts of one or more additional metals, making it 41.7% gold. 10K gold is the minimum karat. that can be called "gold" in the United States.

Dividing the karat unit by 24 will provide the percent of pure gold in the jewelry. Thus, if you are wondering how much gold is in a 9-karat piece of jewelry, divide 9 by 24 to get 37.5%. The metal is 37.5% gold and the remaining 62.5% is likely copper, silver, nickel, or other metals.

If you want a respectable guarantee that your jewellery is gold then you must take it to a certified Gold jeweller and be prepared to part with hard earned cash. However there are some almost harmless tests you can carry out by yourself in the comfort of your home.

Visual Inspection

Look closely at the piece for an official stamp. The stamp shows the grade info which is either given in finesse (1-1000 or .1-.999, e.g 750, [18 karats], 375 [9 karats]) or carat (1-24). Anything under 10k isn’t considered real gold in the U.S. Also, older pieces may not have visible stamps because of wear or repairs that may have been previously done on the piece. On top of that, some forged pieces will still have authentic looking stamps so further testing could give you more insight.

The Magnet Test
Gold is not magnetic, but many of the metals that are often used in fake gold or gold plating are. If your jewelry is attracted to the magnet, it’s not 100% pure gold. However, if it isn’t attracted to the magnet, it is still not necessarily real.

The Ultimate Nitric Acid Test

Nitric acid can tell you if your gold jewelry is real. This is the method most jewelers use. Take a drop of nitric acid and see if it causes a reaction. To tell if the piece is gold plated, you may have to take a file and make a scratch in the jewelry (somewhere that will not be noticeable) to test under the plating. When You want to sell scrap gold to mallams you will notice, they scratch the gold on a magnet or load stone, and then pour the nitric acid over the yellow stain on the magnet and observe the colour. If the nitric acid creates a green reaction, you are dealing with a gold plated piece or a base metal. If you see a milky color reaction, it is probably gold plated over sterling silver. If there is no reaction, your jewelry is real gold. Always take all necessary precautions when handling any type of acid.

The color of real pure gold is a bright yellow hue , but other GOLD ALLOYS can be made to have other colors. Thats right Dear..that precious white gold is an ALLOY and by no means pure gold ( an alloy is a new metal formed when you combine 2 or more metals together )  ,but it is as real as the other available yellow gold jewellery, have no fear,it wont tarnish lol. Pure gold is generally too soft to be used for jewelry anyway, so other metals are nearly always added to it, no matter which color of gold is being prepped for jewelry making

WHITE GOLD ALLOYNickel can be mixed with gold to create a white (or gray) color, but be aware that nickel can cause dermatitis in some people (nickel is a fairly common allergen).
Palladium is another metal used to create white gold alloys. Related to platinum, it is more expensive than nickel, but is less likely to cause allergic reactions than nickel.

ROSE AND PINK GOLD ALLOYS : Copper is added to make many gold-colored alloys, but additional copper creates pink and rose tones -- the more copper, the deeper the effect.

CHRIS AIRE'S RED GOLD : On the 22nd ,2010, Nigerian born Hollywood Jeweller Chris Aire Sued Louis Vuitton, Rolex, Swatch et al for Trademark Infringement! wow! Red Gold is gold mixed with other alloys to give it the red color. Red Gold is a registered trademark of the jewelry designer Chris Aire who they call "the iceman".
Chris Aire red gold stackable bangles

Chris Aire red gold cufflinks


Chris Aire fine Jewellery

BLACK GOLD : Black Gold can be created using quite a few techniques using black rhodium or ruthenium, amorphouse carbon, and oxidation of carat gold containing chromium or cobalt. Electrodeposition using black rhodium or ruthenium is one method. Amorphouse carbon is also used at times, with the Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition process. Controlled oxidation of carat gold containing chromium or cobalt can also be made to yield black gold. Ruthenium containing, electroplating solutions give a slightly harder black coating as compared to electroplating solutions that contain rhodium.

beautiful black gold dressing ring

BLACK GOLD ENGAGEMENT RING..hope My future Dear Husband is reading

PURPLE GOLD :  Purple gold is often used to highlight white gold jewelry. The process to make purple gold is to alloy gold and aluminium in a certain fixed ratio. Gold content is around 79% and is therefore qualified to be referred to as 18K gold. Cast pieces of purple gold are sometimes machined and faceted to be used as 'pseudo gems' in conventional jewellery.
Purple gold inlaid pendants

Purple gold dressing ring

BLUE GOLDBlue Gold is also made as an intermetallic compound between gold and indium. The gold derives a bluish hue color. Manufacturing techniques are similar to those for purple gold
blue gold ornament..18 karats

GREEN GOLD : Green gold is made by combining gold and silver with no copper in the alloy mix producing a greenish yellow. Most green golds are very soft and generally used only as small amounts to highlight other gold colours.
Green Gold Ornament..18 karats

gold skull ring with a green hue

 Coloured Gold tends to be a little brittle, so a sharp blow on a piece of purple gold will most probably cause it to shatter. Such gold colors also tend to tarnish more easily. For black coloured gold, the blacker the gold, the less wear resistant it would be. For black gold colors, electroplating solutions containing ruthenium give a slightly harder coating as compared to solutions containing rhodium. Rubbing or abrading conditions should be avoided for all these coloured gold. However colored gold is becoming the trend to rock in modern day jewellery.

ITALIAN GOLD :The gold industry of Italy has a long history. It can be traced back to almost 3,000 years ago. The records and findings show that manufacture of fine gold jewellery in Italy was started by the people of Tuscany, who were known as Etruscans at that time. Much of their exquisite work has been found and is exhibited in various museums. Italy has been famous through out history as the manufacturer of finest gold jewellery, particularly in Europe. The quality of gold content, its exquisite designs and un-matched craftsmanship all speak for the excellence of Italian jewelry. Italian jewelry is still well liked through out the world although Italy has slipped from its number one gold product manufacturer status as China, India and Turkey are closely following by. 
In Italy mostly 18 carat gold is used, but other higher gold carats are used as well. Also various colours of gold are used including the usual white and yellow and also two toned and three toned gold. 
As the prices of gold are increasing day by day, it is affecting everyone. The Italian goldsmiths have cleverly started making large pieces of jewelry having less gold in weight and it is the latest trend in town and so are the “Y” shaped necklaces. Rings are getting bolder and bolder with cluster of precious/semi precious stones. The good thing about Italian jewelry is that it is available for all budget limits. Italians are proud of their gold industry. There are a number of Goldsmith Designer Schools to transfer the centuries old knowledge about jewelry making as well as training them to use new techniques. Gold festivals are a regular event in Italy showcasing latest items and trends, which are a must-attend for all the Italian gold lovers!!!

Italian leaf table

Italian Gold cuff

This is how love might look!

SAUDI GOLD : Some gold coins, such as Saudi gold riyals are made of 22-karat gold.  Most of the jewelry in Saudi Arabia is also 22-karat, because it is usually made from the original gold riyals.  Such jewelry rarely bears a karat mark. I t is very very yellow!



GOLD FILLED JEWELLERY : Gold Filled, sometimes called Gold Overlay, refers to a layer of a minimum of 10-karat gold that has been permanently bonded by heat and pressure to one or more surfaces of the support metal, then rolled or drawn to a prescribed thickness.  The karat gold must be at least 1/10 (10%) of the total weight.

GOLD PLATED JEWELLERY : Gold plating is a method of depositing a thin layer of gold onto the surface of another metal, most often copper or silver (to make silver-gilt), by chemical or electrochemical.The karat gold content may be less than 1/20, but it must be properly identified by weight in terms of total metal content

GOLD IN MEDICINE : Small amounts of gold are used to remedy a condition known as Lagophthalmos, which is an inability of a person to close their eyes completely. This condition is treated by implanting small amounts of gold in the upper eyelid. The implanted gold "weights" the eyelid and the force of gravity helps the eyelid close fully. 
Radioactive gold is used in diagnosis. It is injected in a colloidal solution that can be tracked as a beta emitter as it passes through the body. Many surgical instruments, electronic equipment and life-support devices are made using small amounts of gold. Gold is nonreactive in the instruments and is highly reliable in the electronic equipment and life-support devices. 

GOLD IN DENTISTRYEven at much higher expense, gold is used in dentistry because of its superior performance and aesthetic appeal. Gold alloys are used for fillings, crowns, bridges and orthodontic appliances. Gold is used in dentistry because it is chemically inert, nonallergenic and easy for the dentist to work

GOLD IN ELECTRONICS : The most important industrial use of gold is in the manufacture of electronics. Solid state electronic devices use very low voltages and currents which are easily interrupted by corrosion or tarnish at the contact points. Gold is the highly efficient conductor that can carry these tiny currents and remain free of corrosion. Electronic components made with gold are highly reliable. Gold is used in connectors, switch and relay contacts, soldered joints, connecting wires and connection strips. 
A small amount of gold is used in almost every sophisticated electronic device. This includes: cell phones, calculators, personal digital assistants, global positioning system units and other small electronic devices. Most large electronic appliances such as television sets also contain gold.

GOLD IN FOOD : It has been found that gold is not only an essential element in the chemical, electrical and medical fields but also in the food industry as well. Because it is non-allergenic and non-toxic, gold is safe to use as food decoration or to ingest in small amounts. In fact, many luxurious restaurants all over the world now add in edible gold sprinkles and flakes into their cuisines.

solid gold cutlery..NEVER A DULL MEAL!
gold standard VODKA..NOT FOR A LEAN POCKET lol

SPRAYED GOLD BOILED EGG...should be yummy

Gold leaf is most expensive food in the world for $15000 per pound!



GOLD IN COMPUTERS : Gold is a good conductor of electricity and is often used in electrical wiring.Wire bonding is a method in which very fine strands of gold wire are used to join one connection pad to another creating an electrical connection.  This method is used in many of electrical goods. Gold is also used for electoplating circuit boards. Gold is used in many places in the standard desktop or laptop computer. The rapid and accurate transmission of digital information through the computer and from one component to another requires an efficient and reliable conductor. Gold meets these requirements better than any other metal. The importance of high quality and reliable performance justifies the high cost. 
Edge connectors used to mount microprocessor and memory chips onto the motherboard and the plug-and-socket connectors used to attach cables all contain gold. The gold in these components is generally electroplated onto other metals and alloyed with small amounts of nickel or cobalt to increase durability.

 Click here for futher reading on the uses of gold

GOLD IN ARCHITECTURE : the common link between the biblical Temple of Solomon, the dome over the tomb of Napoleon at Les Invalides in Paris and the Royal Bank of Canada's modern headquarters in Toronto? In all, gold has been used by the architects in one way or another. In the Temple of Solomon, the bible tells us, "Solomon overlaid the house within with pure gold: and he made a partition by the chains of gold before the oracle; and he overlaid it with gold" (Kings, book I, chapter 6, verse 21). The great dome over Napoleon's tomb is covered with gold leaf, which does not tarnish, even with the atmospheric pollution of modern Paris, and only needs to be renewed once in a generation. The Royal Bank of Canada has gold reflective glass in its windows, cutting cooling and heating costs. Thus, gold was applied from antiquity, not just for its beauty and splendour, but for its unique versatility in other applications

CLEANING GOLD JEWELLERY : To clean gold jewelry that does not include any soft gemstones, pearls or crystals put the gold jewelry into warm sudsy water containing a few drops of mild dishwashing liquid such as Dawn, Ivory or Simple Green, and rub gently with your fingers or a cotton swab. For more abrasive cleaning (only if needed), brush lightly with a soft baby toothbrush. Be gentle. Even with the added metals, gold is still very soft and easily scratched.

Do not use baking soda to clean gold jewelry. They are much too abrasive. Use only mild non-phosphate dishwashing liquid.

Rinse your gold jewelry thoroughly with warm water and dry with a cotton cloth. Avoid using paper products such as tissues because they contain particles of wood that can scratch the gold's surface.

Before storing, let the gold jewelry lie flat and air dry completely, overnight if possible. Moisture speeds the tarnishing process so it's important to make sure your gold jewelry is dry before putting it away.

Once the jewelry is dry, if it looks dull, rub it gently with a jewelry polishing cloth. Use a clean cloth, or a clean section of a previously used cloth, so that the gold is not scratched. To avoid creating a pattern, rub with the polishing cloth in varying straight lines, not in a circular motion.

Pieces of jewelry with gemstones that are glued into the setting should not be submerged in water

Wipe the jewelry with a cloth that's been dabbed in dish soap solution, 

Rinse" the jewelry with a cloth dampened with plain water, 

Lay the pieces upside down after cleaning so any remaining moisture won't soak into the setting.

MACHINE CLEANING: If your gold jewelry still looks dark, it may need aggressive machine cleaning. Most jewelers have some type of automatic cleaning equipment, such as an ultrasonic, ionic or steam cleaner, and experience using it so they can give you advice about whether such cleaning is safe for your specific piece of gold jewelry. If it is, they can thoroughly clean your gold jewelry for you. The professional ultrasonic machines used in jewelry stores heat the cleaning solution so are more effective than the small ultrasonics sold for home use.

PROFESSIONAL POLISHING : Clean gold jewelry that still isn't looking like new may be scratched and in need of extensive polishing to be shiny again. This process is done in stages with abrasive papers, not with a polishing cloth, and is a job for your local jeweler. Such polishing will remove some gold so storing your jewelry carefully will save your gold, and save you some money, too.

Storing Gold Jewelry : When storing, keep each piece of gold jewelry separate from your other jewelry to avoid scratches. If the jewelry is a delicate gold chain, hanging it from a hook will keep the chain from getting tangled. Or stretch the chain out onto jewelers' anti-tarnish tissue, roll up the tissue, and then place the roll in your jewelry box, laying flat. That will keep the chain from getting knotted and also slow down the chemical process that results in tarnish. You may also want to put it into a plastic bag and squeeze as much air out of it as you can before closing (unless your gold jewelry includes pearls or opals; those gems need exposure to the moisture in the air to maintain their luster).



  1. Replies
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  5. Thanks a lot. It was most helpful


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